home Financial System What is Fractional Reserve Banking

What is Fractional Reserve Banking

Creating Money out of nothing

This is the detailing of your enslavement and details the modern day slavery that is controlling our Society.

Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, and holds reserves that are equivalent to a fraction of its deposit liabilities. Reserves are held at the bank as currency, or as deposits in the bank's accounts at the central bank. Fractional-reserve banking is the current form of banking practised in most countries worldwide.

Fractional-reserve banking allows banks to act as financial intermediaries between borrowers and savers, and to provide longer-term loans to borrowers while providing immediate liquidity to depositors (providing the function of maturity transformation). However, a bank can experience a bank run if depositors wish to withdraw more funds than the reserves held by the bank. To mitigate the risks of bank runs and systemic crises (when problems are extreme and widespread), governments of most countries regulate and oversee commercial banks, provide deposit insurance and act as lender of last resort to commercial banks.

Because bank deposits are usually considered money in their own right, and because banks hold reserves that are less than their deposit liabilities, fractional-reserve banking permits the money supply to grow beyond the amount of the underlying reserves of base money originally created by the central bank.In most countries, the central bank (or other monetary authority) regulates bank credit creation, imposing reserve requirements and capital adequacy ratios. This can limit the amount of money creation that occurs in the commercial banking system, and helps to ensure that banks are solvent and have enough funds to meet demand for withdrawals. However, rather than directly controlling the money supply, central banks usually pursue an interest rate target to control inflation and bank issuance of credit.

The History of this System

Fractional-reserve banking predates the existence of governmental monetary authorities and originated many centuries ago in bankers' realisation that generally not all depositors demand payment at the same time.

In the past, savers looking to keep their coins and valuables in safekeeping depositories deposited gold and silver at goldsmiths, receiving in exchange a note for their deposit. These notes gained acceptance as a medium of exchange for commercial transactions and thus became an early form of circulating paper money. As the notes were used directly in trade, the goldsmiths observed that people would not usually redeem all their notes at the same time, and they saw the opportunity to invest their coin reserves in interest-bearing loans and bills. This generated income for the goldsmiths but left them with more notes on issue than reserves with which to pay them. A process was started that altered the role of the goldsmiths from passive guardians of bullion, charging fees for safe storage, to interest-paying and interest-earning banks. Thus fractional-reserve banking was born.

If creditors (note holders of gold originally deposited) lost faith in the ability of a bank to pay their notes, however, many would try to redeem their notes at the same time. If, in response, a bank could not raise enough funds by calling in loans or selling bills, the bank would either go into insolvency or default on its notes. Such a situation is called a bank run and caused the demise of many early bank.

The Swedish Riksbank was the world's first central bank, created in 1668. Many nations followed suit in the late 1600s to establish central banks which were given the legal power to set the reserve requirement, and to specify the form in which such assets (called the monetary base) are required to be held. In order to mitigate the impact of bank failures and financial crises, central banks were also granted the authority to centralise banks' storage of precious metal reserves, thereby facilitating transfer of gold in the event of bank runs, to regulate commercial banks, impose reserve requirements, and to act as lender-of-last-resort if any bank faced a bank run. The emergence of central banks reduced the risk of bank runs which is inherent in fractional-reserve banking, and it allowed the practice to continue as it does today.

During the twentieth century, the role of the central bank grew to include influencing or managing various macroeconomic policy variables, including measures of inflation, unemployment, and the international balance of payments. In the course of enacting such policy, central banks have from time to time attempted to manage interest rates, reserve requirements, and various measures of the money supply and monetary base.

Money creation process

There are two types of money in a fractional-reserve banking system operating with a central bank:

Central bank money: money created or adopted by the central bank regardless of its form – precious metals, commodity certificates, banknotes, coins, electronic money loaned to commercial banks, or anything else the central bank chooses as its form of money.

Commercial bank money: demand deposits in the commercial banking system; sometimes referred to as "chequebook money"

Fractional-reserve-banking-infographic-HORIZONTALWhen a deposit of central bank money is made at a commercial bank, the central bank money is removed from circulation and added to the commercial banks' reserves (it is no longer counted as part of M1 money supply). Simultaneously, an equal amount of new commercial bank money is created in the form of bank deposits. When a loan is made by the commercial bank (which keeps only a fraction of the central bank money as reserves), using the central bank money from the commercial bank's reserves, the M1 money supply expands by the size of the loan. This process is called "deposit multiplication".



Creation of deposit liabilities through the lending process

The proceeds of most bank loans are not in the form of currency. Banks typically make loans by accepting promissory notes in exchange for credits they make to the borrowers' deposit accounts (Just digits in a computer). Deposits created in this way are sometimes called derivative deposits and are part of the process of creation of money by commercial banks. Issuing loan proceeds in the form of paper currency and current coins is considered to be a weakness in internal control.

Money multiplier

A mechanism used to calculate the maximum size of the money supply from any given quantity of base money and a given reserve ratio, is known as the "money multiplier". Rather than directly limiting the money supply however, central banks typically pursue an interest rate target to control bank issuance of credit. The central bank simply supplies whatever amount of base money is demanded by the economy at the prevailing level of interest rates.

So as you can easily see that the money system we have today is a system of debt which holds no true value. Commercial Banks are legally allowed to create money (credit) out of nothing and demand interest on that nothing that was originally given.

Below is a small documentary called Money as Debt, please take some time to watch this video - as it will explain everything that we have stated here about the creation of money and how it is based on fraudulent behaviour by the Bankers.

Old Money which was exchangeable for Gold & Silver

Below are just some examples of "Australian" notes that were pegged to Gold and Silver, this type of money was "real money" - money that had true value as apposed to our current system of Fiat Currency or Legal Tender.

first_1_pound_note_front_big first_5_pound_note_front_big first_10_pound_note_back_big first_10_pound_note_front_big first_50_pound_note_back_big first_50_pound_note_front_big

Money As Debt - What is Fractional Reserve Banking

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